long-term programme

Art for Collective Use

Long-term programme organized in collaboration with Department of Art History of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana

05.10.2015 - 19.10.2018

Ljubljana, 18–19 October 2018

The First World War monuments produced in interwar Yugoslavia are today usually discussed separately, within the context of the successor state to which they belong. The symposium will attempt to present a picture of this production that is as comprehensive as possible, outlining not only the common features of these works but also their differences, which to a large degree were conditioned by very diverse local traditions of commemoration and memorial creation.


The second goal of the symposium is to consider how these monuments are inscribed with desires to strengthen a common Yugoslav identity, establish a collective imaginary, and develop a distinctive visual image of the young state. Yugoslavia faced considerable difficulties in this area, which were fostered not only by internal inter-ethnic and political tensions and a poorly thought-out state cultural policy, but also by the lack of unifying shared stories and memories. Because, before unification, the different peoples of Yugoslavia had often found themselves in opposing political camps, stories from the past could even be extremely divisive for the young state.


The creation of monuments dedicated to the achievements and to the fallen soldiers of the First World War was itself a problematic task: both victors and vanquished found themselves living in the same country, and the burial and commemoration of soldiers from both sides were happening simultaneously. Monuments normally tell us, directly and overtly, that the dead did not die in vain and the living embody the values for which they fought, but in Yugoslavia after the First World War such monuments were impossible. A sense of solidarity, whether sincere or pragmatic, constrained the victors, at least initially, from freely exulting in euphoric triumphalist narratives. And the vanquished were even more constrained, for what had happened was the very reverse of what they had been fighting for, and there was no possible way to rationalize the deaths of the many who had fallen in battle.


PROGRAMME

Thursday, 18 October 2018: The Production of Monuments Associated with the First World War in Different Parts of Yugoslavia
Chaired by: Božidar Jezernik and Olga Manojlović Pintar

10:30 Introductions
11:00 Beti Žerovc: The Development of Public Monuments on the Territory of Future Yugoslavia (lecture in English)
11:30 Petra Svoljšak: Stones of Memory: How and Why were the Memorials Built during the First World War – The Case of the Slovenian Territory and the Isonzo Front (lecture in English)

12:30 Marko Štepec: The Monuments to the First World War in Slovenia (lecture in Slovenian)
13:00 Ljiljana Dobrovšak: The Places of Memory of the First World War in Croatia (lecture in Croatian) 
13:30 Andrea Baotić-Rustanbegović: The Monuments to the Victims of the First World War: Commemorative Practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina (lecture in English)

15:00 Nenad Lajbenšperger: The Monuments Dedicated to the First World War on the Territory of Serbia without Provinces, in Vojvodina and Abroad (lecture in English)
15:30 Danilo Šarenac: The Monuments Dedicated to the First World War on the Territory of Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro, and the Monuments to Foreign Soldiers in Serbia and Macedonia (lecture in English)
16:00 Panel discussion with the lecturers
 * 17:00 Individual lecturer consultations for students and monuments researchers (applications in advance: info@igorzabel.org)

Friday, 19 October 2018: The Monuments in Service of the State
Chaired by: Danilo Šarenac and Beti Žerovc

10:30 Olga Manojlović Pintar: The Monuments to the Heroes and Victims of the First World War and the Remembrance Policy in Yugoslavia (lecture in English)
11:00 Borut Klabjan: Violence in Space: Marking the Border Space in the Northern Adriatic in the First Half of the 20th Century (lecture in English)
11:30 Dalibor Prančević: Ivan Meštrović and the First World War: An Artistic Path from Emigrant Activism to the State Commissions (lecture in English)
12:30 Barbara Vujanović: Shaping the Nation: Interwar Monuments in the Context of the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb (lecture in English)
13:00 Aleksandar Ignjatović: Yugoslavism through the Syntax of Classicism: The Memorials to the First World War in Belgrade and Ljubljana, 1931–1939 (lecture in English)
13:30 Panel discussion with the lecturers

* 15:00 Individual lecturer consultations for students and monuments researchers (applications in advance: info@igorzabel.org)


Venue: Moderna galerija, Cankarjeva 15, Ljubljana
 

The symposium is dedicated to Špelca Čopič (1922–2014), an expert and interpreter of Slovenian and Yugoslav sculpture and public monuments in the 20th century. On this occasion, we will also remember her with a commemorative display.

Organizer: Department of Art History, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana.
The symposium is part of the seminar Art for Collective Use.

Partners: Igor Zabel Association for Culture and Theory and Moderna galerija
The symposium is affiliated with the international research project and exhibition Visual Arts in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–41) that will be on view in spring 2019 at the Moderna galerija (Museum of Modern Art).

Together with the Department of Art History of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana we cordially invite you to attend a series of public lectures that are part of the Art for Collective Use Seminar.


A CONVERSATION WITH MILENKO MATANOVIĆ


22 May 2017, 6 pm, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana (lecture room 343)

Milenko Matanović who in the 1960s was a member of the OHO Group, made some of Slovenian iconic works: Triglav (1968), Wheat and Rope (1969), Project, 30 April 1970, The Constellation of the Candles in the Field Corresponds to the Constellation of the Stars in the Sky (1970). At the beginning of the 1970s, he moved to the US, where he founded and until recently ran the Pomegranate Center, which primarily helps urban neighbourhoods and other communities plan and build common gathering areas.
Video recording


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Together with the Department of Art History of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana we cordially invite you to attend the new series of public lectures under the title Art Exhibiting in Slovenia, from the Early 19th Century to Today.

Within the seminar we are examining the development of exhibition practices and art institutions in Slovenia and Central Europe, as well as in the wider international context. Last year we began in the first half of the 19th century with the start of modern exhibition-making in the Slovene lands; this year and in the following years we then move through the evolution of exhibition-making and the institutionalization of the art field right up to the present day. We discuss various aspects of exhibition-making – institutions, exhibition installations, artworks, the audience, etc. – and examine selected phenomena relating to the institutionalization of art, especially exhibitions and ways to do them.

In the second year of the seminar, we look at art exhibiting in the Slovene lands and Central Europe from 1890 to 1918. In the Slovene lands, this period is marked by a pronounced expansion of the visual art field on various levels. We see a large growth in the number of working artists, many of whom join or come together in different formal and informal art associations, while some artists are also active on a broader cultural-political level. There are various initiatives for exhibiting and institutionalizing visual art, as well as several more visible actual achievements, such as the institution of the Slovene art exhibition (in 1900 and 1902 in Ljubljana, and 1907 in Trieste), Jakopič’s private exhibition space for contemporary art (1909), and the founding of the National Gallery Society (1918), which a few years later would acquire space in the building where the National Gallery is still housed today.


These advances at a provincial pace, follow the general European trends in the field of visual art and exhibition-making and are further defined, characteristically, by the position of the Slovene space and the political situation in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The entire period is marked by an explicit nationalism, which compels artists to take a vocal political stance in their work and, if they have a Slovene sensibility, to move closer to the Slavic world (e.g. Prague or the Balkans) instead of the usual orientation towards Western art centres. Nevertheless, Vienna and Munich remain the key art centres for our region and provide artists with a fundamental frame of reference, which they develop in relation to, use as their touchstone, and cite in their work. This is true also from a cultural-political and organizational perspective: the infrastructures of those two cities, and especially their art societies and Secessionist associations, serve as influential cultural-political and economic models for the infrastructural activity and self-organization of Slovene artists. In the seminar we seek to shed light on these developments, in part by reflecting on art institutions and exhibitions as mechanisms that arise from or at least are fuelled by the political and agitational needs of certain national and political groups. Exhibition-making proves to be, among other things, a crucial medium in the rapid construction and establishment of the phenomenon of Slovene visual art.

Beti Žerovc, leader of the programme


Programme

TOMAŽ BREJC

Ideas, Terms, Exhibitions and Paintings at the Beginning of Modernism

First Lecture: An Apology of Modern Art

15 January 2018, 7 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

Second Lecture: Impression, Mood, Empathy and Expression
16 January 2018, 7 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

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KATJA MAHNIČ

Josip Mantuani and the Painting Collection of the Provincial Museum of Carniola (1909–1924)
9 January 2018, 2.30 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording  (in Slovene)


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GUDRUN DANZER

The Art System in Graz from the Founding of the Styrian Art Society in 1865 until the End of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, part I

Monday, 4 December 2017, 7 pm,  Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording

The Art System in Graz from the Founding of the Styrian Art Society in 1865 until the End of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, part II
Tuesday, 5 December 2017, 7 pm,  Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording

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MICHELLE FACOS

Artists, Exhibitions and Institutions in the United States 1890–1918
Monday, 6 November 2017, 7 pm,  Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording

Artists, Exhibitions and Institutions in Scandinavia 18901918
Tuesday, 7 November 2017, 7 pm,  Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording

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GAŠPER CERKOVNIK
Christian Art Society of Ljubljana


Monday, 23 October 2017, 12 am,  Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

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Organized by: Igor Zabel Association for Culture and Theory; Department of Art History, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana
Supported by: ERSTE Foundation, Austrian Cultural Forum

Together with the Department of Art History of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana we cordially invite you to attend the series of public lectures that is part of the seminar Art for Collective Use: Art Exhibiting in Slovenia, from the Early 19th Century to Today.

In the series, over the course of the next few years, we will be examining the development of exhibition practices and art institutions in Slovenia and Central Europe, as well as in the wider international context. We will begin in the first half of the 19th century with the start of modern exhibition-making in the Slovene lands and then move through the evolution of exhibition-making and the institutionalization of the art field right up to the present day. We will discuss various aspects of exhibition-making – institutions, exhibition installations, artworks, the audience, etc. – and try to understand how and why exhibition-making appeared and became established in the region. We will examine the relationship between exhibitions and art and try to determine the kinds of exhibitions that have been successful in Slovenia and where problems most often occurred. We will pay attention to who organizes and/or finances exhibitions and why they do so. We will reflect on the role exhibitions played in the nationalist and political discourses of the 19th and 20th centuries and the role they play today.


Throughout the seminar we will be considering selected phenomena relating to the institutionalization of art, especially exhibitions and ways to do them. We will ask, for example, how artists such as Mihael Stroj, Anton Karinger, Ivana Kobilca, Rihard Jakopič, Avgust Černigoj, the Independents (Neodvisni), and the OHO Group made exhibitions and why they did it the way they did. How did the institutionalization of contemporary art develop so rapidly after World War II, and why did such an enormous surge of biennial exhibitions “happen” to us in the 1970s and 1980s? We will ask about the traditional role of curators in art exhibitions and look at the changes contemporary curatorial practices have brought to Slovene exhibition-making. By analysing concrete examples of exhibition practices, we will begin to see more clearly the inner logic and operational principles of the Slovene art system.

In the first year we will look at the 19th century, which saw the widespread introduction of general and professional education in the Slovene lands – including various kinds of drawing instruction (which provided employment or additional income to numerous painters). Eventually, the commissioning and collecting of art became established among the middle class, and the first institution for collecting and housing visual art (among other things) was founded, namely, the Provincial Museum of Carniola. In the 1860s, contemporary art begins to be shown regularly in group exhibitions at the Kazina in Ljubljana, which also leads to increasingly conscientious reporting on art and art events in the Carniolan press.


Because the positioning of the art system in the 19th century, both generally and within individual countries and provinces, represents the basis of today’s art system (as well as national art systems), and because many operational practices in the system are not developed from scratch but rather modify and extend older practices, we need a good grasp of the beginnings if we want to understand the evolution of both the art system and art in the 20th century and to the present time. The connections between art institutions and the development of the modern nation state, as well as the institutions’ connections with such phenomena as increasing secularization, globalization, and tourism, must be considered in order to understand why the situation in the art field is the way it is and why the art system has been able to grow stronger and expand so successfully right up to today. As Robert Jensen shows in his lucid study Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Europe, aesthetic modernism from its very beginnings produced not only a body of artwork and scores of “-isms” but also a body of institutions and a matrix of practices, which, unlike modern art, was accepted almost without resistance by European and American art publics.

Beti Žerovc


Programme

NATAŠA IVANOVIĆ

Spectators and Viewing Areas at the Turn of the 19th Century in the Habsburg Monarchy: Landscape Graphics of Lovro Janša (1749–1812)

Tuesday, 25 October 2016, 1 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording  (in Slovene)


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ALESSANDRO QUINZI

The Trieste Art System in the First Half of the 19th Century
Monday, 7 November 2016, 7 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

The Trieste Art System from Mid-19th Century to 1910
Tuesday, 8 November 2016, 1 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

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IVANA MANCE

Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski’s Slovnik umjetnikah jugoslavenskih (1858): The First Lexicon of Croatian and Slovenian Art

Tuesday, 29 November 2016, 1 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording  (in English)


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IRENA KRAŠEVAC

Arts Association: Exhibitions and the Organisation of Fine Arts Events in Zagreb in the 19th Century

Monday, 12 December 2016, 7 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana

Video recording (in Croatian)

The Beginnings of Artistic Education in Zagreb in the 19th Century: From the Drawing School to the National Arts and Crafts School
Tuesday, 13 December 2016, 1 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Croatian)

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RENATA KOMIĆ MARN

The Art Market in Carniola in the Third Quarter of the 19th Century: Art-Collecting Practices of Eduard von Strahl (1817–1884)
Monday, 9 January 2017, 7 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

Strahl’s Gallery in Stara Loka in the Context of Exhibiting Art in Carniola in the Third Quarter of the 19th Century 
Tuesday, 10 January 2017, 1 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Aškerčeva 2, Ljubljana
Video recording (in Slovene)

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Organized by: Igor Zabel Association for Culture and Theory; Department of Art History, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana

Together with the Department of Art History of the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana we cordially invite you to attend a series of public lectures that are part of the Art for Collective Use Seminar. This year Seminar is being organized under the title Monument, Performance, Ritual, Body.

The seminar treats two distinctive art phenomena in Yugoslavia and its successor states: performance art and memorial monuments associated with World War II. Our discussion deals with the entire period from the end of the 19th century to the present, focusing on the 1960s and 1970s, when both practices were at their high point.

The seminar’s primary subject comprises the monumental memorial works dedicated to events from World War II. These monuments can take very different forms and resist any uniform definition. The most ambitious memorializing projects may incorporate numerous structures of varying purposes, including cultural and regional centres (e.g. the Memorial Centre in Kolašin or the Monument at Petrova Gora) or make sweeping changes to the landscape (e.g. the well-marked and well-ordered system of paths for strolling and recreation that constitute the Path of Remembrance and Comradeship in Ljubljana). Today especially, it seems, we are fascinated by monumental objects of extraordinary dimensions that tend toward very purified forms or abstraction and that are situated in remote nature (e.g. the monuments in Tjentište and on Mrakovica Peak on Mt. Kozara). The tradition of building such monuments is very much alive even today, only the ideological principles behind their creation are different (e.g. the Memorial Park in Teharje and the not-yet-completed Monument to the Victims of All Wars in Ljubljana).

Another very impressive chapter of Yugoslav art can be seen in the former country’s diverse performance-art practices. Yugoslav performance artists (such as Marina Abramović, the OHO group, Sanja Iveković, and others) were well informed and very well connected internationally; important foreign representatives of this art form (such as Gina Pane, Ana Mendieta, Joseph Beuys, and Walter De Maria) also came to Yugoslavia on visits or for art events. While it is extremely difficult to find a common denominator in Yugoslav performance art, it eventually acquired the general label of an explicitly political art. In relation to our topic, two points seem interesting: first, a number of key performance artists came from the families of prominent state officials or personages in post-war Yugoslavia, and, second, this fact is explicitly underscored in their biographies.

The juxtaposition of monumental memorial projects and performance art may seem unusual – at first glance they have nothing in common. The differences in their media, their intentions, and their audiences are all too apparent. But analysis also reveals a number of convergences and similarities: both practices were at their height at practically the same time; both contain strong aspects of ritual and very actively include the body; both forms possess a great ability to stir intense emotions and establish identity; and both reach for extremes in ways that are entirely calculated and deliberate.

After the collapse of Yugoslavia, the World War II monuments often became targets of verbal and physical attacks, but in recent years a more positive fascination with these works has been persistently on the rise. Maybe, for many, the fascination comes from the monuments’ extraordinary appearance, which at times works in connection with a Romantic delight in socialist ruins. Some, however, are puzzled by how it was possible to establish modernist principles on such a mass scale and achieve such remarkable results specifically in the practice of public monumental memorials, which was generally not inclined toward the broad use of consistently implemented modernist methods – and this in a time and place that today is often labelled totalitarian. Given that the commissioners of such works were as much “responsible” for them as the artists were, the question is: why did they act as they did?

Beti Žerovc


Schedule

Lectures will be held in English.

SONJA LEBOŠ

Bogdan Bogdanović – Architecture as Applied Anthropology
Monday, 5 October 2015, at 6 pm, Faculty of Arts (room 343), Ljubljana
Video recording


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HEIKE KARGE

Stony Memory – Petrified Memory? World War II Memory and Monuments in Yugoslavia

Monday, 9 November 2015, at 12 pm, Faculty of Arts
Video recording

Monuments’ Biographies – The Case of Jasenovac
Monday, 9 November 2015, at 6 pm, Museum of Contemporary Art Metelkova (+MSUM), Ljubljana
Video recording

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SANJA HORVATINČIĆ 

Genealogy of Form. Typology of the Monuments to People's Liberation Struggle, Revolution and the Labour Movement in Croatia

Tuesday, 10 November 2015, at 1 pm, Faculty of Arts
Video recording

The Meaning and Possibility of a Monument. The Artistic Production and Critical Reception of Monuments in Socialist Yugoslavia
Wednesday, 11 November 2015, at 6 pm, +MSUM
Video recording

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BOJANA PEJIĆ 
The Making of the Communist Body: Politics of Representation and Spatialization of Power in the SFR Yugoslavia (1945-1991)

Lecture 1: Body at Work

Monday, 16 November 2015, at 1 pm, Faculty of Arts
Video recording

Lecture 2: The Production of the Unknown Heroine
Tuesday, 17 November 2015, at 6 pm, +MSUM
Video recording

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MECHTILD WIDRICH 

Lecture 1: Delegated Performance, Delegated Architecture
Monday, 11 January 2016, at 1 pm, Faculty of Arts
Video recording

Conversation between Beti Žerovc and Mechtild Widrich on the Performative Monuments book
Tuesday, 12 January 2016, at 1 pm, Faculty of Arts
Video recording

Lecture 2: Performative Monuments
Tuesday, 12 January 2016, at 6 pm, +MSUM
Video recording

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ART FOR COLLECTIVE USE SEMINAR

This multiyear seminar focuses on art that is created for communal use, acceptance, experience, or rituals and that is usually displayed in the public space. Such work is often marked by a specific “collective authorship”, as not only the artist, but also the ones who commissioned or initiated the work play a significant role in its creation; they may be the politicians or citizens who erect a memorial or symbolically important building, or the curator who prepares an exhibition based on their own concept. Such artwork must, as a rule, encompass and promote the interests of the various people involved in its making, which means that it often originates through a complex and at times quite painful process. Its creation/existence can be a source of long-term contention for the community in which it is located and can have a profound effect on questions of personal or communal identity; its unveiling or destruction can be an event laden with important symbolism. Such artwork can also play an active role in the life practice of a community (sometimes for centuries); it may be included in the community’s everyday life or holidays, in the development of the collective memory or the collective forgetting, and in debates about values, about what is right and what is wrong.

In the seminar we deal mainly with Slovenian secular art from the period of the national reading rooms (čitalnice) to the present. We try to determine when, where, how and why such forms of visual address occurred: Who are the groups or individuals who encourage and commission such artworks and whom are they addressing through these works? What kind of visual art is created in such circumstances and what messages does it convey? How does it enter into various life practices? Do the reception and function of such artworks remain constant over time or do they change? We closely examine the effects of such works and whether they are in fact able to fulfil the demands of their initiators and creators.

Seminar topics:
2014–15: architecture and the exhibiting of contemporary art (Andrea Baotić, Jasna Galjer)
2015–16: memorial monuments associated with World War II and performance art


Organized by: Igor Zabel Association for Culture and Theory; Department of Art History, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana; Museum of Contemporary Art Metelkova
Supported by: ERSTE Foundation

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